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Repair Welding Procedure VFE RWP-1 (Carbon Steels)


This procedure covers the repair welding of unalloyed carbon steel components. The appropriate base material specifications are VIWI MS2 or equivalent.


The defect may be removed by carbon-arc, chipping, grinding or machining. Carbon-arc is the most practical and flame- cutting is not recommended. When carbon-arc is used the temperature of the base metal should be at least 100°F (40°C).

It is imperative that the defect be completely removed to sound metal, free from cracks, shrinkage and porosity. In critical areas, the use of magnetic-particle or dye-penetrant inspection of the weld cavity is strongly recommended.


The minimum preheat temperature is 100° F (40°C). Localized heating is permissible.


The interpass temperature for electric-arc welding is normally listed at 200° F (95°C) above the preheat temperature. However, practical conditions dictate an interpass temperature of 600° F (320°C) maximum.


The “shielded metal arc welding” process (SMAW) should be used for all welding.

(A) Welding Current

Direct-Current, reverse-polarity (DCRP) is required for the electrodes recommended. The voltage and amperage settings should be based upon the recommendations of the electrode manufacturer. In the absence of specific instructions, the following guide may be used:

Electrode Amperage Voltage Diameter Flat Position Flat Position 1/8″ (3mm) 120 22/26 5/32″(4mm) 160 23/27 3/16″(5mm) 240 24/29 1/4″ (6mm) 320 25/30

NOTE: The use of smaller electrodes, and the corresponding lower amperage is recommended.

(B) Electrode

A suitable electrode is the ATOM-ARC 7018 manufactured by Alloy Rods. This is an AWS E-7018 electrode. Any major brand electrode of this classification or AWS E-7015 or E- 7016 may be used.


No special technique is required. The weld bead should be the stringer type. The slag should be removed from the weld deposit between each pass, by chipping, peening and wire- brushing.


In most cases, heat treatment after welding is not necessary. In heavy sections of over 3″ (8cm) thick, covering the weld area with an insulating material, will retard the cooling rate and reduce the welding stresses induced into the component. If stress-relieving is necessary, it should be carried out in a temperature-controlled furnace at 1100-1200° F (600-650°C). Holding time at this temperature is 60 minutes/inch (25 minutes/cm). Cooling may be carried out in the furnace or in still air. Localized stress-relieving with gas torches is not recommended.

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